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Контрольная работа по дисциплине Английский язык

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Контрольная работа по дисциплине Английский язык 

Часть 1. 

1. Translate into Russian the sentences with Gerund.

1. Creating a program is a very interesting step.

2. There are several different ways of describing errors affecting a physical system.

3. It is made by modifying some of the chemical reactions that take place in natural DNA.

4. Progress is due to some combination of finding new algorithms, improving our understanding of the nature of intelligence.

5. This information can be used for altering program.

6. After completing this process you will want to restore C++Builder to its original form.

7. Having virtual directories is helpful if you have files located on another server.

8. This version of the program is far from being perfect.

9. Computers in general are machines for converting information from one form into another more useful form.

10. We believe this organization will help in understanding the interaction among different tasks.

2. Choose the sentences with the Gerund from the ones given below and translate them:

1. Special instruments measuring cosmic radio signals are being installed in the observatory. 2. Penetrating into space was very important for mankind. 3. Applying the method we get better results. 4. Upon adding heat we can change the state of a substance. 5. When measuring the voltage we use a voltmeter. 6. A number of materials, including some gases and semiconductors, possess this property. 7. For many centuries men were interested in obtaining new sources of energy. 8. The engineer insisted on experimenting as the best method to solve this problem. 9. The importance of scientific researches and discoveries is growing with every year. 

3. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Лазер есть устройство для концентрации световых волн в световой луч.

2. Идея использования лазера пришла неожиданно.

3. Измерение температуры является необходимым требованием во многих экспериментах.

4. Развитие науки невозможно без экспериментирования.

5. Решение таких проблем может помочь в производстве.

6. Их желанием было овладение основами радиотехники.

7. Точка плавления алюминия - 657°C.

8. Я помню мое посещение лаборатории. 

4. Translate the sentences with Subjunctive Mood.

1. Esperanto was proposed as the second language that would allow people who speak different native languages to communicate.

2. It might be an image, a user, a document; anything referred to as a noun.

3. This may sound like a simple operation, but in fact, it sometimes involves a very complex process.

4. If you did the subtraction, you would always get the right answer.

5. No one would ever describe Microsoft as being a part of the electricity industry.

6. Perhaps DNA could be modified to create the first nanomachines.

7. If there were any variation in the sequence, it would not be possible to compare the results.

8. This machine would be able to compute tables of numbers, such as logarithm tables.

9. You might be wondering whether there is a smaller rule set that performs as well.

10. In the near future it could be possible to prevent natural disasters.

11. A scanning system would be able to provide information on the brightness and position of objects in space.

12. Science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors, by using already-existing tools and knowledge.

13. Radio broadcasting, which has become such a part of our life, would be impossible without electronics. 

5. Put the verbs into the right form.

  1. You will not get a grant unless you (to study) harder.

  2. If there (to be) any variation in the sequence, it would not be possible to compare the results.

  3. If we were to replace it with some other hypothesis, Theorem 1 (no longer to be) valid.

  4. If people of the past (to know) that lightning was atmospheric electricity, they wouldn’t have invented numerous stories.

  5. Were there no computers, space flight and many other achievements of modern science and technology (to be impossible).

  6. If the number of chains (to be) greater than five, then a random placement would have been performed.

  7. If feedback controllers could be programmed to accept noisy, imprecise input, they (to be) much more effective and perhaps easier to implement.

  8. Had they amplified new methods in production, the result (to be) much better. 

6. Translate the sentences into English.

1. В других условиях этот прибор работал бы эффективней.

2. Желательно, чтобы выбор элемента питания был сделан с большей точностью.

3. Если бы вы вчера сняли показания прибора, сегодня бы мы имели результаты.

4. Жаль, что вы не можете сказать ничего нового.

5. Очень важно, чтобы эксперимент был проведен сегодня.

6. Жаль, что эта работы не была опубликована.

7. Если бы вы имели эту программу, работа была бы сделана быстрее. 

Часть 2. 

Translate the text (2000s) into Russian. The text should be taken from your individual reading.

The maturation of database management system (DBMS) technology has coincided with significant developments in computer network and distributed computing technologies. The end result is the emergence of distributed database management systems. These systems have started to become the dominant data management tools for highly dataintensive applications. Many DBMS vendors have incorporated some degree of distribution into their products.

A distributed database (DDB) is a collection of multiple, logically interrelated databases distributed over a computer network. A distributed database management system (distributed DBMS) is the software system that permits the management of the distributed database and makes the distribution transparent to the users. The term “distributed database system” (DDBS) is typically used to refer to the combination of DDB and the distributed DBMS. These definitions point to two identifying architectural principles. The first is that the system consists of a (possibly empty) set of query sites and a non-empty set of data sites. The data sites have data storage capability while the query sites do not. The latter only run the user interface routines in order to facilitate the data access at data sites. The second is that each site (query or data) is assumed to logically consist of a single, independent computer. Therefore, each site has its own primary and secondary storage, runs its own operating system (which may be the same or different at different sites), and has the capability to execute applications on its own. A computer network, rather than a multiprocessor configuration, interconnects the sites. The important point here is the emphasis on loose interconnection between processors that have their own operating systems and operate independently

A distributed database is physically distributed across the data sites by fragmenting and replicating the data. Given a relational database schema, fragmentation subdivides each relation into horizontal or vertical partitions. Horizontal fragmentation of a relation is accomplished by a selection operation that places each tuple of the relation in a different partition based on a fragmentation predicate (e.g., an Employee relation may be fragmented according to the location of the employees).


Часть 3. 

1. Translate into Russian the sentences with Subordinate Clauses.

1. While these applications have a common thread, each has its own specific problems and needs.

2.That the radio is the fastest and most reliable way to detect artificial sattelites is well known to everybody.

3.The direction to the object is found more simply: you know where you pointed the directional antenna when the echo was received.

4.  Since we have general ideas about the structure and effect of each rule, it is straight forward to effectively initialize each rule.

5. In other words, the cache manager must find out whether a view of the file at the desired address is mapped into the system cache.

6. The codes you specified on your machine may not be available on a client machine.

7. When desk top computers first appeared, it was thought by some that TCP was too big and complex to run on a personal computer.

8. As new clusters are formed, they are immediately considered in evaluating whether other clusters should be combined.

9. One disadvantage to the Delphi programming model is that it doesn’t use traditional resources as other programming environments do.

10. This saturation time increases as the solution space gets larger.

11. What you need is to understand how to establish and apply uniform security policies.

12. This may include recording times when the computer is in use, or which web sites are visited.

13. They inform people on how the business is to be run and how day to day operations are to be conducted.

14. While this negotiation takes place, the online service provider communicates his requirements about the minimum amount of data he needs to provide the wanted service.

15. Because of the decentralized, non-authoritative nature of the Internet, information is being distributed over a variety of different channels.

16. We don’t know whether the new financial policy of the government will be successful.

17. As soon as you receive a buffer of data from the wave input device it is already compressed and ready for transmitting. 

2. Translate the sentences with Emphatic Constructions.

1. It is the expert system that should be able to explain its reasoning and answer questions about solution process.

2. It is not only computer science where expert systems have been used to solve a wide range of problems.

3. This is what Internet can offer people in the sphere of education.

4. Writing an expert system does involve great deal of time and money.

5. Those systems were not incompatible in terms of the services offered and the control signaling used.

6. This is what supplementary services are provided for.

7. Nor should we forget the telephony, the most basic teleservice supported by GSM.

8. It is the absence of rules that makes you operate individually.

9. It is under these circumstances that the operational research is most useful.

10. This is where the hidden talents of the ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) come into play. 

Часть 4. 

Translate the text (2000s) into Russian. The text should be taken from your individual reading. 

A distributed DBMS has to provide the same functionality that its centralized counterparts provide, such as support for declarative user queries and their optimization, transactional access to the database involving concurrency control and reliability, enforcement of integrity constraints and others. In the remaining sections we discuss some of these functions; in this section we provide a brief overview.

Query processing deals with designing algorithms that analyze queries and convert them into a series of data manipulation operations. Besides the methodological issues, an important aspect of query processing is query optimization. The problem is how to decide on a strategy for executing each query over the network in the most cost-effective way, however cost is defined. The factors to be considered are the distribution of data, communication costs, and lack of sufficient locally available information. The objective is to optimize where the inherent parallelism of the distributed system is used to improve the performance of executing the query, subject to the above-mentioned constraints. The problem is NP-hard in nature, and the approaches are usually heuristic.

User accesses to shared databases are formulated as transactions, which are units of execution that satisfy four properties: atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability – jointly known as the ACID properties. Atomicity means that a transaction is an atomic 8 unit and either the effects of all of its actions are reflected in the database, or none of them are. Consistency generally refers to the correctness of the individual transactions; i.e., that a transaction does not violate any of the integrity constraints that have been defined over the database. Isolation addresses the concurrent execution of transactions and specifies that actions of concurrent transactions do not impact each other. Finally, durability concerns the persistence of database changes in the face of failures. ACID properties are enforced by means of concurrency control algorithms and reliability protocols.

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