Unit 6 Trade, Іноземна мова
Unit 6 Trade
In order to be able to discuss trade you need to learn the concept and definition of trade and international trade in particular. For this purpose you can use the following information resources:
Language focus: check up your knowledge of the discussed issues at
Read the article by Phillip Inman, economics correspondent, to find out about the latest trends in the world trade
China overtakes us in world trade
Combined total for imports and exports of Chinese goods hits $3.87tn, edging past the US for the first time.
Employees work at a shoe factory in Lishui, Zhejiang province, China. Photograph: Lang Lang/Reuters
China has become the world's biggest trading nation in goods, ending the post-war dominance of the US, according to official figures.
China's customs administration said the combined total for imports and exports in Chinese goods reached $3.87tn (£2.4tn) in 2012, edging past the $3.82tn trade in goods registered by the US commerce department.
The landmark total for Chinese trade indicates the extent of Beijing's dependence on the rest of the world to generate jobs and income compared with a US economy that remains twice the size, and more self-contained. The US economy is worth $15tn compared with the $7.3tn Chinese economy.
The US not only has a large internal market for goods, but also dominates the trade in services. US total trade amounted to $4.93tn in 2012, according to the US Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) with a surplus of $195.3bn.
But like most western nations, the US deficit in the trade of goods weighs heavily and is only expected to get larger.
The deficit in goods was more than $700bn compared with China's 2012 trade surplus, measured in goods, which totalled $231.1bn.
Jim O'Neill, head of asset management at Goldman Sachs, said the huge market for western goods would disrupt regional trading blocs as China becomes the most important commercial partner for some countries. Germany may export twice as much to China by the end of the decade as it does to France, he told Bloomberg.
"For so many countries around the world, China is becoming rapidly the most important bilateral trade partner," he said. "At this kind of pace by the end of the decade many European countries will be doing more individual trade with China than with bilateral partners in Europe."
Answer the questions:
Language focus: do the exercise to know more about global production and the labour market to expand your knowledge of the world economy trends at http://www.english-test.net/esl/learn/
Skills: Presentation techniques
Look through the presentation “Trade Barriers” at
Answer the questions:
There are several structures in English that are called conditionals.
"Condition" means "situation or circumstance". If a particular condition is true, then a particular result happens.
There are three basic conditionals that we use very often. There are some more conditionals that we do not use so often.
In this lesson, we will look at the three basic conditionals as well as the so-called zero conditional. We'll finish with a quiz to check your understanding.
First Conditional: real possibility
We are talking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition or situation in the future, and the result of this condition. There is a real possibility that this condition will happen. For example, it is morning. You are at home. You plan to play tennis this afternoon. But there are some clouds in the sky. Imagine that it rains. What will you do?
Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. It is not raining yet. But the sky is cloudy and you think that it could rain. We use the present simple tense to talk about the possible future condition. We use WILL + base verb to talk about the possible future result. The important thing about the first conditional is that there is a real possibility that the condition will happen. Here are some more examples (do you remember the two basic structures: [IF condition result] and [result IF condition]?):
Second Conditional: unreal possibility or dream
The second conditional is like the first conditional. We are still thinking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition in the future, and the result of this condition. But there is not a real possibility that this condition will happen. For example, you donot have a lottery ticket. Is it possible to win? No! No lottery ticket, no win! But maybe you will buy a lottery ticket in the future. So you can think about winning in the future, like a dream. It's not very real, but it's still possible.
Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. We use the past simple tense to talk about the future condition. We use WOULD + base verb to talk about the future result. The important thing about the second conditional is that there is an unreal possibility that the condition will happen.
Here are some more examples:
Third Conditional: no possibility
The first conditional and second conditionals talk about the future. With the third conditional we talk about the past. We talk about a condition in the past that did not happen. That is why there is no possibility for this condition. The third conditional is also like a dream, but with no possibility of the dream coming true.
Last week you bought a lottery ticket. But you did not win. :-(
Notice that we are thinking about an impossible past condition. You did not win the lottery. So the condition was not true, and that particular condition can never be true because it is finished. We use the past perfect tense to talk about the impossible past condition. We use WOULD HAVE + past participle to talk about the impossible past result. The important thing about the third conditional is that both the condition and result are impossible now.
Sometimes, we use should have, could have, might have instead of would have, for example: If you had bought a lottery ticket, youmight have won.
Look at some more examples in the tables below:
Zero Conditional: certainty
We use the so-called zero conditional when the result of the condition is always true, like a scientific fact.
Take some ice. Put it in a saucepan. Heat the saucepan. What happens? The ice melts (it becomes water). You would be surprised if it did not.
Notice that we are thinking about a result that is always true for this condition. The result of the condition is an absolute certainty. We are not thinking about the future or the past, or even the present. We are thinking about a simple fact. We use the present simple tense to talk about the condition. We also use the present simple tense to talk about the result. The important thing about the zero conditional is that the condition always has the same result.
We can also use when instead of if, for example: When I get up late I miss my bus.
Look at some more examples in the tables below:
Here is a chart to help you to visualize the basic English conditionals. Do not take the 50% and 10% figures too literally. They are just to help you.
For more information see Market Leader. Course book. Intermediate business English/ D.Cotton, D.Falvey, S.Kent: Longman, 2001 (p. 136) 
Check your understanding of grammar and do the exercises:
Use the information resource:
For more information see Market Leader. Course book. Intermediate business English/ D.Cotton, D.Falvey, S.Kent: Longman, 2001 (p. 46-53) 
Revision: check up your knowledge of the topic at
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