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Writing Guidelines for Master Programme Students, КНЛУ

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Kyiv National Linguistic University

Professor O. M. Morokhovsky Chair of

English Lexicology and Stylistics 

Daria Kuznietsova 


Writing Guidelines for Master Programme Students 


Kyiv 2013


1. Language and Style 

2. Text Organisation

3. Basic Directions for Laying out the Text 

4. Formatting and Content Guidelines for Specific Sections 

4a. Title Page

4b. List of Abbreviations

4c. Table of Contents

4d. Résumé

4e. Appendices

5. Pagination

6. Integrating Lists

7. Integrating Diagrams and Tables

8. Integrating Sources into the Text

9. Integrating Linguistic Data

10. Punctuation and Abbreviations

11. Paraphrasing and Summarising

12. References

13. Sample Pages

13a. Sample Title Page for Master’s Thesis in English

13b. Sample Title Page for Master’s Thesis in Ukrainian

13c. Sample Title Page for Course Paper in English

13d. Sample Title Page for Course Paper in Ukrainian

13e. Sample Table of Contents Page

These guidelines are meant for the students of the Germanic Philology Department at Kyiv National Linguistic University that major in English. They define the most important issues to be considered while writing a master’s thesis and offer possible ways of handling the formal aspects of other students' scholarly papers and practical assignments. 

1. Language and Style

  • Write your thesis in English. Present the methodology, novelty, theoretical and practical significance of the results obtained as well as the research results per se in a scholarly, well-integrated and properly documented manner.

  • Use academic vocabulary and formal style.

  • Be consistent with the key terminology and do not vary the terms used to avoid ambiguity.

  • Avoid heavy, long-winded style of writing, colloquial expressions (e.g., lots of, kind of, sort of, pretty enough), contracted forms (e.g., it’s, don’t, he’s, aren’t), emotional and subjective language (e.g., the theme is fascinating; I was overwhelmed by the findings), personal pronouns (e.g., I / me, you, we).

  • Distinguish between the em-rule (—), the en-rule (–) and a short hyphen (-). The em-rule (—) is used only in tables to mark an empty cell. The en-rule (–) (also called a ‘long hyphen’) is used to mark a ‘dash’ – it is then preceded and followed by a space – and number spans, such as in page numbers (e.g. 123–54) in the main text as well as in the List of References. A short hyphen (-) is used within compound words (e.g., right-hand, semi-colon, etc.).

  • Proofread and edit your draft versions to achieve accuracy. One of the requirements to a research paper is a high standard of grammar, spelling, punctuation and typing.

  • Remember that scientific or scholarly writing must be unambiguous; it must communicate clearly, precisely and briefly. Say what was done; how it was done; why it was done to minimise the possibility of misinterpretation.

  • Prepare two bound copies of your thesis.

2. Text Organisation

  • Write your paper in continuous prose, not as notes.

  • Plan the organisation of the paper before you begin to write it.

  • Make your paper logical and easy to follow.

  • Organise your paper into a theoretical and practical parts.

  • Split the parts into chapters and subchapters. Make each chapter coherent.

  • Start each chapter of your thesis with a new page. Write the titles of the chapters in block letters.

  • Do not use ‘widows’, i.e. short lines ending a paragraph at the top of a page or at the end of a chapter.

  • Do not leave a heading or subhead at the bottom of a page that is separate from its respective text on the following page.

  • Start each chapter with a brief introduction (7–8 lines) indicating the rationale (your explanation why you are writing this chapter here), what it contains and which materials by which authors you have used for compiling it.

  • Do not leave quoting any source without your commentary or explanation why you have used it. It is your paper and the readers want to know what you think about the material you quoted.

  • End each chapter with the summary of the main issues considered in it.

  • Present the data in the practical part visually, i.e. through diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and give your interpretation. 

3. Basic Directions for Laying Out the Text

  • Use font type Times New Roman, 14 point text size.

  • Use 1.5 spacing.

  • Set up the margins as follows: left –3.0 cm; right –1.5 cm; top –2 cm; bottom –2 cm. Apply these margins to all pages, including those with tables and figures.

  • Indent the first line of the paragraph (1.25 cm).

  • Write the titles of the chapters in block letters. Do not put a full stop at the end of a chapter heading.

  • Write each meaningful word in sub-chapter headings with a capital letter. 

4. Formatting and Content Guidelines for Specific Sections

This list indicates the order in which to place the parts of your thesis. All sections are mandatory unless designated as optional.

Preliminary Pages:

  • Title Page in English

  • Title Page in Ukrainian

  • List of Abbreviations (optional)

  • Table of Contents 

The Body of the Thesis:

  • Introduction

  • Text (split into Chapters)

  • General Conclusions

  • Résumé 

References and Supplemental Section:

  • Literature Cited

  • List of Reference Materials

  • List of Illustration Materials

  • Appendix (or Appendices) (optional) 

4a. Title Page

  • The title page contains the information about the title and type of the work, its author, the research adviser, the university, the department and the year. See the sample title page at the end of the Writing Guidelines and edit the page accordingly.

  • According to the general regulation for a master’s thesis, it is required to have a title page in Ukrainian. It should be an exact translation of the title page in English, with necessary transformation to make the rubrics sound authentic. The layout regulations are the same as on the English title page.

  • Double-check your supervisor’s title and degree.

Title page format in Ukrainian

Title page format in English

доктор філологічних наук,

професор ПІБ

Prof. NAME

Doctor of Science (Linguistics)

кандидат філологічних наук,

доцент ПІБ

Assoc. Prof. NAME

PhD (Linguistics)

кандидат філологічних наук,

старший викладач ПІБ

Assist. Prof. NAME

PhD (Linguistics)

These are the font types and text sizes used on the title page.

Ministry of Education, Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine

Times New Roman 18, centered

Kyiv National Linguistic University

Times New Roman 18, centered

Professor O. M. Morokhovsky Chair of English Lexicology and Stylistics

Times New Roman 16, centered


Times New Roman 16, centered


Times New Roman 18, bold, centered


Times New Roman 16, bold, right-handed

Group 509

Times New Roman 16, right-handed

Department of Germanic Philology

Times New Roman 16, right-handed

Research Adviser

Times New Roman 16, right-handed


Times New Roman 16, right-handed


Times New Roman 16, bold, right-handed


Times New Roman 16, right-handed

Kyiv 2012

Times New Roman 16, centered

4b. List of Abbreviations

  • As a page heading, use LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS in block letters centered on the page.

  • Provide a list of abbreviations if you have devised your own abbreviations instead of using commonly accepted ones to be found in the dictionary.

  • Arrange the list alphabetically by the abbreviation itself, not by the spelled-out term.

  • Start the spelled-out version of an abbreviation with a capital letter. Put no punctuation mark at the end of the spelled-out version of a term.

  • Even when the paper includes a list of abbreviations, provide the spelled-out version of a term in the text of the paper, when the abbreviation first appears.

  • Never begin a sentence with an abbreviation. 

4c. Table of Contents

The table of contents always precedes the Introduction and lists all the parts of the paper; it shows the paper division into chapters, sub-chapters and subsub-chapters (if any). The subsub-chapter is set out if it is at least one page long.

  • As a page heading, use TABLE OF CONTENTS in block letters centered on the page.

  • Use block letters for the titles of the chapters and upper-case letters for all the meaningful words in the titles of subchapters and subsub-chapters (see the sample table of contents page in Appendix).

  • List page numbers in a column to the right of each chapter title; state only the first page of each chapter, e.g., …, not a range of page numbers, such as 7−21. 

4d. Résumé

  • As a page heading, use РЕЗЮМЕ in block letters centered on the page.

  • The résumé must be written in Ukrainian and must not exceed 700 words, (i.e., two А4 pages), font type Times New Roman, 14 point text size, 1.5 spacing.

  • A list of up to, but no more than, 7 key words must follow the abstract.

  • Do not give examples and quotations in the résumé. 

4e. Appendices

  • Appendices are optionaland used for supplementary material. Place them after the reference section.

  • All Appendix pages need to be numbered; page numbers are continued from the last page of the references section.

  • All the material must be within prescribed margins and be readable in size and legibility.

  • § As a page heading, use APPENDICES in block letters centered on the page. Leave this page blank.

  • § Appendix headings (Appendix designations and titles) should be all block letters. Appendix designations (e.g., APPENDIX A) are centered. Appendix titles are centered, all capital letters.

  • § The appendix designation (APPENDIX or APPENDIX A, etc.) is required in the Table of Contents. 

5. Pagination

  • The title page is counted but not numbered.

  • Use continuous Arabic numbers (beginning with 1) in the same size font as the text, placed at the upper right-hand corner of the page starting with the List of Abbreviations.

  • If there is more than one page, each page receives its own consecutive page number. 

6. Integrating Lists

  • Use your word processor’s automatic numbering facilities wherever possible, since it is much easier to amend a list if the numbers are automatically adjusted.

  • For the list items themselves, take care that each is a grammatically correct continuation of the introduction to the list.

  • Avoid running the sentence on after the list of points, either by incorporating the final phrase in the introductory sentence or by starting a new sentence.

The four basic types of listing are illustrated below. примеры

Lists of short items (without main verbs) should be introduced by a full sentence and have the following features:

– introductory colon

– no initial capitals

– no punctuation (very short items) or comma after each item

–  a full stop at the end.

Where each item completes the introductory sentence, you should:

– begin with the introductory colon;

– label each item with the appropriate bullet, number or letter;

– end each item with a semicolon;

– close with a full stop.

If all items are complete statements without a grammatical link to the introductory sentence, proceed as follows:

– introduce the list with a colon;

– label each item with the appropriate bullet, number or letter;

– start each item with a lowercase letter;

– end each one with a semicolon;

– put a full stop at the end.

If any of the items consists of several complete sentences, announce the list with a complete sentence and continue as indicated below:

– Introduce the list with a colon.

– Label each item with the appropriate bullet, number or letter.

– Begin each item with a capital letter.

– End each statement with a full stop. This allows several sentences to be included under a single item without throwing punctuation into confusion. 

7. Integrating Diagrams and Tables

  • Use the term figure for all kinds of diagrams, graphs and pictures; use the term table for all kinds of tables.

  • Number every table and figure consecutively by chapter and give a brief title (for the table) or caption (for the figure). Do not number figures and tables by subchapters.

  • Set the number and the title of the table above its body, thus:

Table 1.1.

Cultural specificity in the system of emoticons













: (

: - O

>: (

Eastern tradition




( \_/ )


Set the number and the title of the figure below its body, as a caption, thus:

Figure 2.1.Types of shortening in Modern English 

  • Include diagrams and tables into the text of the paper if they are not longer than a page.

  • If a figure / table is placed directly into the text, the text may appear above or below the figure / table; no text may wrap around the figure / table.

  • Refer to the relevant figure by number, for example, ‘as Figure 2.1. shows, the most productive means of word-formation in Modern English are …’.

  • Put diagrams and tables into an appendix if they are longer than a page.

  • Number the diagrams and tables placed within the text in accordance with the order they occur in it.

  • Refer to diagrams and tables in the appendix in accordance with the order they occur in it (see Appendix A. Table 4. Productive Means of Word-Formation).

  • Do not put any punctuation marks after the headline of a figure or a table.

  • For too long a page indicate Table 1.1 (or any respective number) at the beginning and then at each page write ‘Table 1.1. (continued)’.

  • For too wide a table or diagram use Landscape Paper Size and do not place any text on the page containing the broad table. 

8. Integrating Sources into the Text

  • Avoid plagiarism, i.e. using other authors’ words or ideas without indicating the source. Even if you paraphrase or summarise other authors’ ideas, always indicate the source!

  • Use non-breaking space between a person’s first and last names so as to avoid having them in different lines. To do so, select the space between them, go to INSERT → SYMBOL → SPECIAL CHARACTERS → NON-BREAKING SPACE (нерозривний пробіл).

  • Give bibliographical references in a short format at relevant points in the text. A short reference consists of the author's surname followed by the year of publication in parentheses, i.e. round brackets, for example, Jones (1999).

  • Provide page references when reference is made to a specific passage in a book or article. These appear after the date of publication and are preceded by a colon and a single space: Jones (1996: 296–299) or Jackson (1999: 79).

one author

(Cameron 2000: 5)

two authors

(Norton and Green 1991: 202)

for more than two authors use et al.

(Robson et al. 1988: 48)

for different works by the same author of the same year

(Asher 1966a: 51) (Asher 1966b: 14)


no author

the examples are borrowed from Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics (1997)


  • When several short references occur within parentheses, use commas to separate different dates of publication and semicolons to separate different authors, e.g., (Brown 1965, 1967; Smith 1968). Multiple references must be listed in alphabetical order (for several names) and in chronological order (for several publications).

  • For repeated citations use Latin abbreviations:


(in the same place)


relates to the same work, cited immediately before:

  • it can refer to the same page;
  • it can also refer to a different page.


(ibid.: 35)


  • Use direct quotations when the exact words of the source are important for your purpose.

  • Quote accurately. Be careful to avoid mistakes of any kind. After copying a passage proofread your version comparing it with the original.

  • Avoid using too long a quotation (over 4 lines).

  • Supply quotations by your commentary and account for the use of a quotation in the context.

  • Start and end a quotation with quotation marks. Use single inverted commas unless a quoted extract includes another quotation within it; in this case the first quotation shall be included in double quotation marks and the second – in single quotation marks.

  • Do not use « » to mark quotations.

  • If a quotation contains punctuation marks (full stop, semicolon, comma, question mark, exclamation mark, etc.) and the corresponding passage ends with the same punctuation mark, place the quotation mark after the punctuation mark.

  • If you use a direct quotation as a part of your sentence, integrate it in the following way:

Parents should make the language they speak with a bilingual child clear for him/her, as Arnberg (1991) puts it, ‘in order for children to make use of adult input in their own construction of language, this input must match the child’s level of development’ (1991: 110).

  • If a work is by more than one author, use plural verb with the reference:

‘Quirk et al. (1985: 1045) point out that…’.

  • If some part of the quotation is not relevant for your paper, you may omit it. Indicate the omission by three ellipsis dots, e.g. ‘[…] language contacts for Latvian have been primarily one-sided, i.e., Latvian has borrowed from other languages but others have not borrowed from Latvian […]’ (Veisbergs 1999: 16). 

9. Integrating Linguistic Data

If your research paper is based on the analysis and discussion of linguistic data (which should always be the case), introduce actual examples and refer to them as you go along.

  • If a quotation is an example of a language phenomenon or an extract from fiction or non-fiction discourse meant for analysis, write it in italics, number with Arabic numerals in parenthesis and indent. Do not enclose it in quotation marks. Use bold italics to set off the linguistic phenomena you analyse.

  • Number discourse fragments consequently throughout the text.

  • In parenthesis mention the author’s last name (no initials needed), the abbreviated title of the book and the page reference preceded by a colon and a single space. For example:

(1) I walk over to it and gaze up alongside Eric, with what I know is a parody of an intelligent art-lover’s expression (Kinsella, RM: 88).

  • If you present more than one discourse fragment, end each one with a semicolon and put a full stop at the end. For example:

(1)  He had a face like a plateful of mortal sins (Zephaniah, F: 37);

(2) Eyes of softest fire! How could his ripe eyes behold you, and not plead to keep you? (Krantz, D: 248).

  • If you analyse lexemes and their definitions, use bold italics for the lexeme, indicate the part of speech in parenthesis, put a colon, enclose the dictionary definition in single inverted commas; end up with the reference (abbreviated title of the dictionary and the page preceded by a colon and a single space) in parenthesis: blush (v): ‘turn red, as if in embarrassment or shame’ (OED: 124); colour (v): ‘when someone colours, their face becomes redder because they are embarrassed’ (LDCE: 255). The list of abbreviations for the most popular dictionaries is given below:


Англо-русский фразеологический словарь [cост. Кунин А. В.]. – М.: Государственное издательство иностранных и национальных словарей, 1955. – 1455 с.


Англо-український фразеологічний словник [уклад. Баранцев К. Т.]. – [2-ге вид., випр.]. – К.: Товариство "Знання", КОО, 2005. – 1056 с.


Лингвистический энциклопедический словарь / [под ред. В. Н. Ярцевой]. – М. : Советская Энциклопедия, 1990. – 685 с.


Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary [Електронний ресурс]. – L.: Heinle ELT, 2006. – 1 електрон. опт. диск (CD-ROM). – Систем. вимоги: Pentium-266 ; 32 Mb RAM ; CD-ROM Windows 98/2000/NT/XP/Vista. – Назва з титул. екрану.


Collins English Dictionary. – [9th ed.]. – Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007. –  1874 p.


Encarta World English Dictionary / [ed. Dr. Kathy Rooney]. – L.: Bloomsbury, 1999. – 2173 p.


Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. – L.: Longman, 2000. – 1668 р.


Macmillan Online Dictionary: Free British Dictionary and Thesaurus [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу до словн.:   



Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English [ed. A. S. Hornby]. – [6th ed.]. – L.: Oxford University Press, 2000. – 1540 р.


Roget’s 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition [Електронний ресурс].Режим доступу до словн.: 


10. Punctuation and Abbreviations

This section focuses on Latin abbreviations common to scholarly papers which can be used without definitions.

  • Do not italicise or underline Latin abbreviations.

  • Use Latin abbreviations inside the parentheses only, that is, when you are making a parenthetical statement. When used outside the parentheses, replace Latin abbreviations with their English equivalents.






‘compare’, ‘consult’ (provides contrasting information)

Brown (2010) found supportive results in her experiment, unlike those of previous work (cf. Jones (2007).

Never put a comma after. Use ‘cf.’ to contrast; to compare, use ‘see’ or ‘see also’.


‘for example’

Some studies (e.g., Brown & Morgan (2010); Smith (2009)) have supported this conclusion.

Always put a comma after.


‘and so on’

Students ranked their school subjects (chemistry, math, etc.) in order of preference. A majority ranked science-related subjects (biology etc.) as their second favorite.

Put a comma before if used to end a list of at least two other items.


‘that is’

(used to give specific clarification)

a walking boot which is synthetic, i.e. not leather

Always put a comma after.



We first replicated our earlier study (viz., Black & Avery (2008)) and then extended it.

Always put a comma after.



(low vs. high)

Never put a comma after


  • Avoid the use of slashes. If two terms are possible, use one, or give both and use ‘and’ or ‘or’ in between. Do not use ‘s/he’, but make a choice or use ‘they’.

  • Spell out numbers below 100. State in figures precise numbers, units of measurement, and numbers above 100. 

11. Paraphrasing and Summarising

  • Do not enclose the words of the paraphrase in quotation marks.

  • Indicate the author’s name and the year in parentheses at the end of the summary, for example, (Robson 1999) if the name of the author is not a part of the sentence.

  • If your sentence contains the name of the author, indicate only the year when the source was published (e.g., Robson (1999) points out …). 

12. References 

You must reference all material you use from all sources and acknowledge your sources in the body of your paper each time you use a fact, a conclusion, an idea or a finding from someone's work. This establishes the authority of your work and acknowledges the researchers and writers you have drawn upon in your paper.

  • Arrange the sources alphabetically according to the language. Start with those in Cyrillic alphabet. Then list those in Latin alphabet.

  • Multiple publications by the same author should be listed in chronological order, repeating for each entry the author’s name and using letters to distinguish different items published in the same year by a given author.

  • Make separate lists for theoretical sources, reference materials and illustration materials. As a page heading, use LITERATURE CITED, LIST OF REFERENCES, LIST OF ILLUSTRATION MATERIALS in block letters centered on the page.

There exist different systems for documenting sources in the reference list. You should follow the rules given in the table below.

Reference for


a journal article

Абрамова Н. Т. Невербальные мыслительные акты в "зеркале" рационального сознания / Н. Т. Абрамова // Вопросы философии. – 1997. – № 7. – С. 99–113. 

Allan K. The connotations of English colour terms: Colour-based X-phemisms / K. Allan // Journal of Pragmatics. – 2009. – Vol. 41. – P. 626–637.

a book

(one author)

Алефиренко Н. Ф. Спорные проблемы семантики : [монография] / Николай Фёдорович Алефиренко. – Волгоград: Перемена, 1999. – 273 с. 

Devitz J. R. The language of emotion / J. R. А чего ж тогда хотя бы первый инициал не расписывается тут и в других местах? Devitz. – N.Y. : Prentice Hall, 1999. – 127 p.

a book

(two authors)

Баранов А. И. Русская политическая метафора (материалы к словарю) / А. И. Баранов, Ю. Н. Караулов. – М. : Ин-т русского языка РАН, 1991. – 193 с. 

Gamble T. K. Communication works / T. K. Gamble, M. Gamble. – N.Y. : Random House, 1987. – 440 р.

a book

(three authors)

Иванова И. П. Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка / Иванова И. П., Бурлакова В. В., Почепцов Г. Г. : [учебник для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз.]. – М. : Высшая школа, 1981. – 285 с. 

Oatley K. Understanding emotions / Oatley K., Keltner D., Jenkins J. M. – [2nd ed.]. – N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell, 2006. – 536 p.

a book

(four and more authors)

Філософія: Світ людини : [навч. посіб. для студ. вищ. навч. закл.] / В. Г. Табачковський, М. О. Булатов, Н. В. Хамітов та ін. – К. : Либідь, 2004. – 432 c. 

Greek and Latin Roots: Keys to Building Vocabulary / T. Rasinski, N. Padak, R. M. Newton, E. Newton. – L.: Shell Education, 2008. – 221 p.

a book

(no author)

Социальная психология личности в вопросах и ответах : [уч. пособие / под ред. проф. В. А. Лабунской]. – М. : Гардарики, 1999. – 397 с. 

The Handbook of English Linguistics / [ed. B. Aarts, A. McMahon]. – Oxford : Blackwell Publishing, 2006. – 815 p.

a part of a book

Воробйова О. П. Ідея резонансу в лінгвістичних дослідженнях / О. П. Воробйова // Мова. Людина. Світ : [зб. наукових статей до 70-річчя проф. М. П. Кочергана / відп. ред. Тараненко О. О.]. –  К.: Вид. центр КНЛУ, 2006. – С. 72–86. 

Reddy M. The conduit metaphor: A case of frame conflict in our language about language / M. Reddy // Metaphor and Thought / [ed. by A.Ortony]. –  Cambridge : CambridgeUniversity Press, 1993. – P. 202–224.

an abstract of a thesis

Кривенко Г. Л. Зоосемізми в українській та англійській мовах:  семантико-когнітивний та функціонально-прагматичний аспекти : автореф. дис. на здобуття наук. ступеня канд. філол. наук : спец. 10.02.17 "Порівняльно-історичне і типологічне мовознавство" / Г. Л. Кривенко. –  К., 2006. – 20 с.

a thesis

Козяревич Л. В. Вербальні й невербальні засоби емпатизації діалогічного дискурсу (на матеріалі англомовної прози ХХ століття) : дис. ... канд. філол. наук: 10.02.04 / Козяревич Ліана Василівна. – К., 2006. – 191 с.

an e-source

Черноиванова А. Мы все телепаты [Електронний ресурс] / А. Черноиванова. – 2005. – Режим доступу до статті:


Rajmohan V. Mirror neuron system [Електронний ресурс] / V. Rajmohan, E. E. Mohandas // Indian J Psychiatry. – 2007. –  No. 49. – P. 66–69. – Режим доступу до журн. : http://www.medknow.com.htm

a dictionary

Англо-русский фразеологический словарь [cост. Кунин А. В.]. – М.: Государственное издательство иностранных и национальных словарей, 1955. – 1455 с. 

Collins English Dictionary. – [9th ed.]. – Glasgow : HarperCollins Publishers, 2007. –  1874 p.

an e-dictionary

Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary [Електронний ресурс]. – L. : Heinle ELT, 2006. – 1 електрон. опт. диск (CD-ROM). – Систем. вимоги: Pentium-266 ; 32 Mb RAM ; CD-ROM Windows 98/2000/NT/XP/Vista. – Назва з титул. екрану. 

Macmillan Online Dictionary: Free British Dictionary and Thesaurus [Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу  до словн.:   


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